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  • BEIJING — The emotional disintegration of a 17-month-old boy named John as he sought and failed to find comfort from caregivers in a British boarding nursery, captured in a 1969 documentary film, deeply distressed the Chinese women at a seminar last week on early childhood separation.北京——一个名叫约翰(John)的17个月大的男孩想从一家英国寄宿托儿所寻求安抚未果,因此情绪崩溃。这个故事被1969年的一部纪录片记录下来。上周,在一个关于幼儿早期分离的研讨会上,这个故事令与会的中国妇女感到非常难过。It showed in hard-to-watch detail the damage that can be inflicted when young children lose their primary caregivers. John’s anguish was extreme. He cried for days, refused food and withdrew.该片以惨不忍睹的细节展现出失去主要照顾者可能对幼儿造成的伤害。约翰非常痛苦。他大哭了好几天,拒绝进食和与人沟通。One woman at the seminar, which was offered at a Beijing university and attended mostly by mothers and professional caregivers, took off her glasses and hid her face in her hands for a long time.研讨会上的一个女人摘下眼镜,用手捂住脸很长时间。这次研讨会在北京的一所大学召开,与会者大多是母亲或职业看护人。Another stared straight ahead, tearing up.另一个人眼睛直直地盯着前方,满含泪水。A third asked, somewhat frantically, whether John had healed later. The answer — that he had not, entirely — from the teacher, Alf Gerlach, a psychoanalyst at the Sigmund Freud Institute in Frankfurt, was met with quiet consternation.还有一位略带急躁地询问约翰后来是否康复。讲师阿尔夫#8226;格拉克(Alf Gerlach)的回答是,他没有完全康复。格拉克是法兰克福弗洛伊德研究所(Sigmund Freud Institute)的精神分析学家。他的回答带来一片愕然。Millions of Chinese who attended boarding nurseries and preschools after the Communist revolution in 1949, when large-scale systems of institutional care were established to free parents to pursue revolution or to labor, experienced John’s plight to some degree.1949年共产主义革命后,中国建立了大规模机构式护理系统,来解放父母,让他们有时间参与革命或劳动。成百上千万中国幼儿被送往寄宿托儿所或幼儿园,他们也都在某种程度上经历了约翰的痛苦。The generation most deeply affected may be those born in the early decades after 1949, as the boarding system sp unquestioned — those in their 50s and 60s who run the country today.受影响最深的应该是在1949年之后的前几十年出生的人——那时寄宿系统在没有受到任何质疑的情况下推广开来——而今他们五六十岁,正掌管着这个国家。But the women at the seminar, who ranged from young adults to middle age, all had stories of losing primary caregivers, or of being forced to separate from their own children because of rules barring parents from staying with their hospitalized children.但是,研讨会上的女性,不管是刚刚成年,还是人到中年,都有失去主要照顾者,或者因为不允许父母与住院的孩子呆在一起的医院规定而被迫同孩子分开的经历。Boarding school is less common now for those under 6 but is still considered a respectable option. Even Chinese millennials may have been sent as toddlers. It is widesp among children 6 and older.六岁以下儿童的寄宿托儿所如今已经不是那么普遍,但仍被视为不错的选择。在中国,就连千禧一代小时候也有可能被送进这种托儿所。这种情况在六岁及以上的儿童中非常普遍。Hoping to understand more about the development of the system in China, I visited the Beijing municipal archives on Archive Road.我希望更多了解这种系统在中国的发展状况,于是拜访了北京市档案馆。There, documents showed that, at top institutions in the city after the revolution, the caregiver-to-child ratios — John’s problem had been a lack of attention — were initially high. Mostly, the children of the elite were sent away. The children of ordinary citizens were cared for at home.这里的档案表明,革命之后,在北京最好的若干托儿所里,照顾者与幼儿的人数比(约翰的问题在于缺乏关照)最初是非常高的。大多数情况下,精英阶层的孩子们会被送进托儿所。普通市民的孩子们则在家里接受照顾。A 1958 State Council document recorded a 1-to-2 ratio in 1956 at a nursery run by the Ministry of Agriculture. But colder times began with the 1958 “double-anti” campaign against “waste and conservatism.”根据一份1958年的国务院档案的记载,1956年,在一个农业部管理的托儿所里,一个看护者只需照顾两个幼儿。但是随着1958年“反浪费反保守”的“双反”运动来临,冷酷的时代开始了。Spending on food and board was cut everywhere, the document showed. The caregiver ratio at the ministry nursery went to 1-to-5.5 that year. The authorities promised to get it to 1-to-5.9, in line with “rectification.”文件表明,在所有地方,用于食物和住宿的经费都被缩减。那一年,在这个农业部的托儿所里,相关比例变成了一个看护者照顾5.5个幼儿。为了“整风”,官方承诺将这个比例变成1:5.9。Conditions in less privileged preschools grew grim as the authorities pushed to institutionalize large numbers of children to free parents to meet higher production as during the Great Leap Forward of 1958 to 1961.在1958年到1961年的“大跃进”期间,官方开始推动将大量儿童送进幼儿园的做法,以便把父母解放出来,完成更高的生产定额,因此,在条件相对没那么好的幼儿园里,形势变得更加严峻。Another document, dated 1960, noted: “The problem now is that the development of boarding nurseries isn’t keeping up with the development of the needs of production.” Facilities were built quickly but were “small and cramped.” 另一份1960年的文件中写着“主要问题是托儿组织的发展还跟不上生产发展的需要”。设施建设很快,但“非常窄小”。Only 26 percent were “good.” In Beijing, 400,000 children needed preschool places immediately, the document said. With the able-bodied working in fields or factories, the caregivers were often old or sick. At one preschool, the document said, six children drowned in one summer and three got food poisoning, with one dying.“良好”率仅为26%。文件说,在北京,有40万儿童迫切需要幼儿园。身强力壮的人都在农田或工厂工作,看护人通常都是老弱者。文件显示,在一个幼儿园里,一个夏天内有六个孩子溺水,三人食物中毒,其中一人死亡。Conditions have improved drastically since then, but loyalty to the system remains. An article published one week before school began on Sept. 1, by Shilehui, a website for preschool educators, addressed the issue.比起那时,幼儿园的条件得到很大改善,但是人们仍然执着于这一体系。在9月1日学校开学一周前,一个名为“师乐汇”的幼儿园教育者网站上发表的一篇文章就此做出解答。Hardly any parent likes to send a young child to be boarded, it said. But in the interests of “objectivity,” it listed three advantages: Boarding helps children become more independent and less finicky and make more friends.文章称,很少有父母愿意送孩子去寄宿。但是出于“客观”考虑,文章列出了寄宿制度的三个优点:能帮助孩子更加独立、不娇气、交到更多朋友。Little John’s experience shows it also can have negative emotional outcomes. And the reactions of the women attending the course suggest that many Chinese parents know it.小约翰的经历表明,这种制度可能在感情方面带来负面后果。而参加这个课程的女性的反应表明,很多中国父母明白这一点。 /201610/469791
  • Nanjing has become latest major Chinese city to impose purchasing restrictions on its housing market in the face of intensifying price growth.随着房价加速上涨,南京成为中国最新一个出台楼市限购政策的主要城市。The Nanjing municipal government has announced that from today it will ban families registered as residing in the city of more than 8.2m and which own two or more homes from putting newly built residences up for sale. 南京市政府宣布,从今日起,拥有两套及以上住房的该市户籍居民家庭不得再新购新建商品住房。The government also banned non-locals who own one or more residences from selling either newly built or existing housing, according to a statement published today on its official website.南京市政府网站上的公告显示,已拥有1套及以上住房的非户籍居民家庭不得再新购新建商品住房和二手住房。南京市有逾820万人口。The move follows the introduction of similar restrictions in the second-tier cities of Xiamen and Hangzhou, with all three cities located in booming coastal provinces. 此前厦门和杭州两个二线城市也出台了类似的限购措施,这3座城市全都位于繁荣的沿海省份。Authorities in Hefei, capital of the inland province of Anhui, also announced a cap on mortgages of two per person in early August.内陆省份安徽省省会合肥在今年8月初也宣布了房地产贷款每人限贷两次的政策。Official pricing data from 70 major cities across China showed renewed growth in August, as did property investment – if only slightly – both of which were in line with trends shown by privately collected data on the period by property price portal SouFun.来自中国70个主要城市的官方价格数据显示,今年8月房价再次上涨,房地产投资同样增长(即便增幅不大),这两个数据都与房地产门户网站搜房网(SouFun)同期收集的数据显示出的趋势相符。 /201609/468746
  • This week, Republicans will endorse the first US presidential nominee since the second world war to reject America’s globalist consensus. It is hard to see beyond that stark fact. Yet it is only the second most troubling feature of Donald Trump’s rise. The bigger one is his impact on the health of American democracy. Even if Mr Trump is defeated in November, it will be hard to put the genie back into the bottle. Budding demagogues will have taken note. You can denigrate most of the people most of the time and still have a shot at the main prize.美国共和党正在举行大会,预计会正式提名唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)作为该党的总统候选人。他将是二战以来首位对美国的全球主义共识说不的总统候选人。人们很难从这一严峻现实中看到积极的一面。然而,这还不是特朗普崛起最令人担忧的地方。最令人不安的是他对美国民主制度健康运行的影响。即便特朗普在11月的大选中失利,释放出的魔鬼也很难再收回瓶中。蠢蠢欲动的煽动者将牢记此道。你可以在大部分时间里诋毁大多数人,同时照样有机会获得“大奖”。Stripped to their essence, US presidential elections are a tug of war between freedom and equity. It is impossible to get a full dose of both. Republicans generally favour liberty over equality and Democrats the reverse. Other people’s dignity is not up for grabs. Mr Trump’s hostile takeover of the Republican party has shredded that equation. Comparisons between Mr Trump and Ronald Reagan are particularly misleading. Mr Trump speaks to that part of people that feels cheated, slighted and humiliated. People who attend his rallies emerge angrier than before. “You walked out of a Reagan rally in a spirit of optimism,” says Stuart Stevens, an adviser to Republican nominee Mitt Romney. “You leave a Trump rally y for a fight.”就本质而言,美国总统选举是一场自由与公平之间的拉锯战。两个目标不可能同时全面实现。共和党通常偏爱自由胜过平等,而民主党恰好相反。不能拿其他人的尊严做买卖。特朗普对共和党的敌意接管打破了这种平衡。把特朗普与罗纳德·里根(Ronald Reagan)进行类比尤其误导。特朗普的目标受众是那些感觉受到欺骗、轻视和羞辱的人。参加特朗普竞选集会的人在离开会场时比之前更加愤怒。“你带着乐观精神走出里根的竞选集会,”上届共和党总统候选人米特·罗姆尼(Mitt Romney)的顾问斯图尔特·史蒂文斯(Stuart Stevens)说,“离开特朗普的竞选集会时,你只想找茬。”It should be no surprise when violence ensues. Mr Trump has given supporters the green light by saying he would like to punch the protesters himself. This week’s Cleveland convention will test Mr Trump’s self-control on a grander level. For the first time since the 1960s, far-right white supremacist groups will be likely to be patrolling the same streets as black civil rights protesters. Taboo sentiments, such as Holocaust denial, are seeping back into the conversation.所以,暴力接踵而来是不足为奇的。特朗普为持者大开绿灯,称他很想亲自狠揍异议者。本周在克利夫兰举行的共和党大会将在更大层面上考验特朗普的自我控制。自上世纪60年代以来,极右的白人至上主义者团体很可能将首次与黑人民权抗议者在相同街道上游行。曾被视为禁忌的看法(如否认犹太人大屠杀)正在一点点回到人们的谈话中。It is facile to blame it all on social media. Technology makes it easier for fringe groups to disseminate their prejudices. But it is leaders that validate such demons. Anyone who doubts that should watch how children respond to adult supervision. Then they should Lord of the Flies.把这一切都归咎于社交媒体未免草率。科技使得边缘群体更易于散播他们的偏见。但让这些偏见具有份量的是领导人。怀疑这一点的任何人,都应该看看孩子们对成年人监督的反应。然后,他们应读一读《蝇王》(Lord of the Flies)。Comparisons between Mr Trump and Italy’s Silvio Berlusconi are far more apt. A leading Italian scholar, Luigi Zingales, recalls an event at which the country’s former prime minister taunted an embarrassed young woman by making repeated schoolboyish puns about orgasms. The shocking part was not Mr Berlusconi’s boorishness but the audience’s wild applause.将特朗普与意大利的西尔维奥#8226;贝卢斯科尼(Silvio Berlusconi)进行类比恰当得多。意大利知名学者路易吉#8226;津加莱斯(Luigi Zingales)回忆起在一场活动上,这位意大利前总理不停地讲“荤段子”来奚落一位陷入窘境的年轻女子。令人震惊的不是贝卢斯科尼的粗鲁行为,而是观众热烈的掌声。“Such approval would have been unimaginable before the rise of Berlusconi,” said Mr Zingales. “There is no way of measuring the degree to which he has debased public life in Italy.” The same applies to the Trump effect. But the quality of Italy’s democracy is largely an Italian affair. Even Britain’s decision to leave the EU is ultimately local. What happens in America shapes the fate of democracy around the world.“贝卢斯科尼崛起之前,这样的赞许简直无法想象,”津加莱斯说,“无法衡量他对意大利公共生活的败坏程度。”特朗普效应也是如此。但意大利民主的质量在很大程度上只是意大利国内事务。就连英国退欧决定的影响最终也是局部的。美国的情况影响着世界各地民主的命运。Mr Trump’s rise is bad news for our system of government on three fronts. First, he has shown you can rise to the top of the world’s most cherished democracy by scapegoating entire categories of people. Whether that is illegal Hispanic immigrants, women he deems unattractive, Muslims of any kind, or African-Americans who get uppity, Mr Trump has profited from other people’s indignity. Apologists for Mr Trump say he is only channelling popular sentiment. In fact, he is licensing its darkest instincts. Alarmists liken today’s crisis of democracy to the 1930s. A more instructive parallel is what followed. No country reflected more deeply about the meaning of constitutional democracy than post-Nazi Germany. The first line of Germany’s 1949 Basic Law is: “Human dignity shall be inviolable.”特朗普的崛起在三个方面对我们的政府体制意味着凶兆。首先,他展示了,你可以通过让整个群体成为替罪羊来登上世界最受珍视的民主制度的最高领导岗位。不论是非法的西语裔移民、他眼中缺乏魅力的女性、任何教派的穆斯林,或是自负的非裔美国人,特朗普受益于对别人的羞辱。特朗普的辩护者称,他只是在引导民意。实际上,他在激发人性中最黑暗的一面。危言耸听者喜欢把当下的民主危机与1930年代相提并论。更有启示的比较对象是1930年代之后发生的事情。没有哪个国家比二战后的德国更深入地反思了宪政民主的意义。德国1949年制定的《基本法》(Basic Law)的第一章第一条即为:“人的尊严不可侵犯。”Second, he has made post-factual politics respectable. US detractors — call them the “expert class” — quixotically fact-check Mr Trump’s stream of assertions. No, America’s president does not have the authority to order American companies to repatriate overseas plants. No, Mr Trump did not oppose the 2003 Iraq war. Yes, the US maintains a nuclear triad. No, the US Treasury cannot unilaterally rewrite the terms on its debt obligations. And no, America’s constitution does not permit a religious test for citizenship. To pro-democracy forces in places like China, Mr Trump’s immunity from truth is baffling. Eric Li, a leading Chinese venture capitalist, says Mr Trump’s success has undercut liberal reformists in China. “If the people can be so wrong, how can you give them the vote?” he wrote recently in Foreign Affairs.第二,他使得无视事实的政治文化成为常态。美国的批评者——不妨称其为“专家阶层”——唐吉诃德式地核实特朗普的各种断言。不对,美国总统无权下令美国企业将海外工厂迁回国内。不对,特朗普并未反对2003年的伊拉克战争。是的,美国保持着核三位一体(指一国同时具备陆基洲际弹道导弹、潜射弹道导弹和战略轰炸机三种核打击方式的能力——译者注)。不对,美国财政部不能单方面修改其债务契约的条款。不对,美国宪法不允许对公民资格进行宗教测试。对于中国等国的亲民主力量而言,特朗普信口雌黄却照样崛起,令他们困惑。知名华裔风险资本家李世默(Eric Li)表示,特朗普的成功不利于中国的自由派改革者。“如果人民会犯如此大的错,怎么能给他们选票呢?”他最近在《外交》(Foreign Affairs)杂志上写道。Finally, Mr Trump has corroded faith that rules-based societies are self-sustaining. This time it really could be different. The real estate mogul has never encountered a setback where he did not head straight to the nearest court to overturn it. Does anyone believe a defeated Mr Trump would call Hillary Clinton on November 8 to wish her luck? It is easy to forget that democracy is based on adversaries’ respect for the integrity of the system. Mutual trust, not law, is democracy’s strongest glue. Belief in human dignity is what underpins it.最后,特朗普腐蚀了一种信念——即基于规则的社会可以长治久安。这次真的可能会不同。这位房地产大亨每次遇到阻碍,都会径直前往最近的法院试图将其推翻。有人认为被击败的特朗普会在11月8日打电话给希拉里#8226;克林顿(Hillary Clinton)祝她好运吗?很容易被遗忘的是,民主建立在竞争者都尊重体制诚信的基础上。相互信任(而非法律)是民主制度最强的黏合剂,而撑互信的是对人的尊严的信念。At his nomination in Cleveland this week, Mr Trump will present his opponent as a crook, his critics as losers, his business record as unparalleled, and his invented facts as the gospel. At least 40 per cent of Americans will still vote for him in November. Democracy’s enemies and friends alike may ask: “How many Trumps can the system take?”周二在克利夫兰被正式提名后发表讲话时,特朗普将把他的对手描述为骗子,把他的批评者描述为失败者,他的从商经历无人能及,他虚构的事实是福音。仍会有至少40%的美国人将在11月投票持特朗普。民主制度的敌人和朋友或许都会问:“这一制度能容纳多少个特朗普?” /201607/455687
  • China has named and shamed 10 travel agencies as the country attempts to create a sound environment for tourists, the National Tourism Administration (NTA) said Sunday.国家旅游局在周日表示:中国已经列出10家评价恶劣的旅游中介,并对游客进行声明公示The tourist companies, which are based in Yunnan Province, Hainan Province and Shandong Province, have been blacklisted, effective for two years, due to ;irregularities.;根据旅游“不平等条约”这一事件,包括云南省,海南省和山东省的几家旅行社被加入到了该黑名单当中。该名单有效期为两年Five agencies#39; licenses have been revoked and the remaining heavily fined, according to an NTA statement. Seven tourist guides were also blacklisted and punished.根据国家旅游局近日表示:五家旅游中介的营业许可被吊销,并处以巨额罚款。七名导游也被加到黑名单中同时加以处罚The NTA introduced the blacklist in July. The agencies and guides were the first group on the list. The behavior of blacklisted companies and individuals will be closely watched by tourist authorities.国家旅游局在7月制定出台了黑名单。上述旅行社和导游是第一批被加到名单上的。除此之外,这些名单上的的公司和个人也会被旅游相关部们密切监视.China is one of the world#39;s largest tourism markets. During the week-long National Day holiday in early October, tourists make a total of 526 million trips to attractions across the country.中国是世界上最大的旅游市场之一。在10月初的国庆黄金周假期中,共计有5亿2600名游客到全国各地的景点旅游However, tourist complaints have mounted in recent years about irregularities in tour company operations, most typically over mandatory shopping excursions.然而,游客对旅游中介不公正待遇的抱怨在近些年来也有所增长,其中最典型、最常见的现象就是强制消费 /201510/404579
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